A zine is most commonly a small circulation self-publishedwork of original or appropriated texts and images usually reproduced via photocopier.
A popular definition includes that circulation must be 1,000 or fewer, although in practice the majority are produced in editions of less than 100, and profit is not the primary intent of publication. They are informed by anarchopunk and DIY ethos.
Zines are written in a variety of formats, from desktop published text to comics to handwritten text (an example being the hardcore punk zine Cometbus). Print remains the most popular zine format, usually photocopied with a small circulation. Topics covered are broad, including fanfiction, politics, art and design, ephemera, personal journals, social theory, riot grrrl and intersectional feminism, single topic obsession, or sexual content far enough outside of the mainstream to be prohibitive of inclusion in more traditional media. The time and materials necessary to create a zine are seldom matched by revenue from sale of zines.
Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil to receive a desired image. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A fill blade or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink through the mesh openings to wet the substrate during the squeegee stroke. Basically, it is the process of using a mesh-based stencil to apply ink onto a substrate, whether it be t-shirts, posters, stickers, vinyl, wood, or other material.
Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of polyester or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance. Ink is forced into the mesh openings by the fill blade or squeegee and onto the printing surface during the squeegee stroke. As the screen rebounds away from the substrate the ink remains on the substrate. It is also known as silkscreen, serigraphy, and serigraph printing. One color is printed at a time, so several screens can be used to produce a multicoloured image or design.
Product packaging plays an important role in the marketing mix
1. Eye-catching appearance A distinctive, unmistakable and eye-catching appearance is a signal at the POS to which all consumers and particularly the younger ones respond positively. Whatever stands out clearly in the monotonous competitive environment, whatever is surprising scores points with the consumer. Special effort makes a special impression - and is allowed to cost more too.
2. Design, shape and colour The purpose of well-considered design, creative printing and finishing is to entice the consumer to devote attention to the pack and its contents at the POS. Aesthetics and attractiveness are major distinctive features - and are in fact essential in some product segments: beautiful packaging design is of central importance in the cosmetics and confectionery product groups. Consumers like to buy agreeably designed and decorative products!
3. Functionality Functional aspects are the basis for all successful packaging and for thus greater product success too. Product and aroma protection, hygiene and tightness, environmental responsibility and practical handling (in both use and storage) are just as important here as ideas that improve comfort: closure mechanisms, portioning, see-through windows, for example.
4. Innovation Novelty has exceptionally strong appeal. An innovative pack can even make "new products" out of familiar ones. Unusual solutions, functional new developments and originality not only set design trends but also boost sales!
5. Material What is printed on board is read particularly willingly, while what is packaged in board sells particularly well. Sustainability, easy disposal and, above all, great design variety and potential are particular features of the material. Popular with consumers, particularly high appeal and many other advantages too.
6. Efficient communication The packaging is the credible medium at the point of sale and is consulted willingly and intensively (see "Material"). This makes it an efficient means of communication and, in addition, one that gets closer to the consumer than all others. If several of his senses are appealed to as well, he can be persuaded particularly successfully.
7. Multisensory appeal Anyone who approaches consumers via several of his senses attracts greater attention, intensifies perception and stimulates interest in buying. Packaging that can be felt, smelled and heard as well as looked at wins the customer's favour. So much so that he is willing to pay a higher price for this multisensory appeal.
8. Appropriateness for the product Packaging is considered to be an important indicator of quality. The quality of the product therefore has to be communicated by good packaging and not just by promises of quality made in the text on the packaging. A credible "overall work of art" is created as a result, in which the contents and the packaging are coherent and the consumer is convinced by their consistency.
9. Value Packaging is an excellent way to communicate sophistication, class and value. This makes it an ideal strategic option for expressing premium positioning - as well as being the instrument of choice when a product needs to be upgraded or a brand needs to be revitalised. Products in classy packaging are particularly popular presents too.
10. Additional benefits Successful packaging not only combines what is pleasant with what is functionally useful but also provides additional benefits. For example, as a gift or for presentation, with entertaining components or simply by making it possible to continue using the packaging for something else after the product has been consumed.